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11/30/2016 / Sanghwan A. Lee

하나님의 선물

Introduction

헬라어 신약성경에서 가장 논란이 되고 있는 ‘지시대명사-선행사’ 논쟁은 에베소서 2:8에 있습니다. 이곳에 사용된 지시대명사 “이것 (개역한글, 개역개정, 한글 킹제임스, 새번역)” 혹은 “그것 (현대인의 성경)”이 어떤 선행사와 연결되느냐에 따라 구원론에 영향이 미치기 때문입니다.

너희는 그 은혜에 의하여 믿음으로 말미암아 구원을 받았으니 이것은 너희에게서 난 것이 아니요 하나님의 선물이라 (개역개정 엡 2:8)

너희가 그 은혜를 인하여 믿음으로 말미암아 구원을 얻었나니 이것이 너희에게서 난 것이 아니요 하나님의 선물이라 (한글 킹제임스 엡 2:8)

하나님의 은혜로 여러분은 그리스도를 믿어 구원을 받았습니다. 그것은 여러분의 힘으로 된 것이 아니라 하나님의 선물입니다. (현대인의 성경 엡 2:8)

여러분은 믿음을 통하여 은혜로 구원을 얻었습니다. 이것은 여러분에게서 난 것이 아니요, 하나님의 선물입니다. (새번역 엡 2:8)

너희가 그 은혜를 인하여 믿음으로 말미암아 구원을 얻었나니 이것이 너희에게서 난 것이 아니요 하나님의 선물이라 (개역한글 엡 2:8)

보시다시피 지시대명사의 선행사를 무엇으로 보느냐에 따라서 하나님의 선물이 (1) 은혜, (2) 믿음, (3) 구원, 혹은 (4) 구원의 모든 여정이 될 수 있는 것입니다. 그렇다면 본문에 등장하는 지시대명사의 선행사는 무엇일까요? 아래는 ‘지시대명사의 선행사가 구원의 모든 여정을 가리키기 때문에 중생, 성화, 칭의, 및 영화가 하나님의 전적인 주권 아래 이루어지는 선물이다’는 주장을 문법적, 문맥적으로 주장하는 글입니다.

Ephesains 2.8.jpg

Stating the Problem

“The most debated text in terms of the antecedent of the demonstrative pronoun”[1] exists in Eph 2:8. The demonstrative pronoun τοῦτο is neuter, while the antecedent nouns, πίστεως and χάριτί, are both feminine, and the antecedent participle σεσῳσμένοι is masculine in gender. This is problematic since a Greek pronoun generally agrees in gender with its antecedent to which it refers. This discrepancy has given rise to several interpretations. The purpose of this article is to examine several suggested solutions in order to determine what best explains the evidence, relying on probability rather than possibility.

Suggested Views

πίστεως as Antecedent of  τοῦτο

On the basis of the rare grammatical cases, (1) Constructio ad sensum and (2) attraction, some argue that the demonstrative pronoun refers to πίστεως.[2] In this view, Paul is saying that faith itself is the gift of God.

According to the rule of Constructio ad sensum, meaning that agreement of words according to the sense of the expression rather than strict grammatical rules,[3] a neuter pronoun can refer back to a noun of a different gender. Consequently, there is no grammatical objection to the notion that τοῦτο refers back to πίστεως. The advocates of this view rely on this rare grammatical construction to give an allowance to the pronoun τοῦτο for violating normal grammatical conventions.[4] For example, Abraham Kuyper shows several classical examples (Plato, Protagoras, 357C; Plato, Menon, 73C; Plator, Protag, 352B; Plato, Phaedo, 61A; Plato, Theaetetus, 145D; Demonsthenes, Contra Aphob, 11; Xenophon, Hiero, 9.9) and then concludes, “[T]he construction of a neuter pronoun with a feminine noun as its antecedent is not a mistake, but excellent Greek.”[5] In addition, Robert H. Countess, his short article, provides three examples mentioned above (Plato, Protagoras, 357C; Plato, Menon, 73C; Xenophon, Hiero, ix, 9) to make the same argument, asserting that the difference of gender is not fatal to such a view: “One stands, therefore, on firm ground when he concludes regarding the retrocipatory character of τοῦτο and the use of gender, that τοῦτο not only may refer to ‘faith’ but in fact does.”[6] Peter T. O’Brien, who does not hold this view, also admits, “This interpretation is grammatically possible”[7] and implies that Pauline soteriology, which is in line with the consequence of this view (e.g., 1 Cor 1:26-31; Eph 1:19; Col 2:12), gives weigh to the this view.[8] Charles Hodge is also fond of this view, since “it best suits the design of the passage.”[9] He then translates Eph 2:8 as follows: “Ye are not only saved by faith in opposition to works, but your very faith is not of yourselves, it is the gift of God” (Italic added).[10]

According to Daniel B. Wallace, there is another reason why the advocates hold this view: Attraction.[11] Succinctly speaking, since the feminine pronoun αὕτη is attracted to the neuter gender of δῶρον, τοῦτο was used instead of αὕτη. This view seems to be convincing at first glance because “the demonstrative pronounces are frequently attracted in gender to the predicate nominative both in Latin and Greek, … and this rule obtains also in the New Testament.”[12]

χάριτί as Antecedent of  τοῦτο

Although not many commentators and theologians argue for χάριτί as the antecedent of what τοῦτο refers, they are open to the possibility that τοῦτο may refer to χάριτί.[13] For example, Markus Barth notes, “The neuter pronoun ‘this’ may refer to one of three things: the ‘grace,’ the verb ‘saved,’ the noun ‘faith.’”[14] As mentioned above, this line of reasoning can possibly be justified by the rule of Constructio ad sensum. Furthermore, since a demonstrative pronoun does not necessarily refer “to the noun which is nearest, but to the noun which is most vividly in the writer’s mind,”[15] τοῦτο may refer to χάριτί. If legitimate, the translation of Eph 2:8 would be as follows: “For by grace have you been saved through faith, and this is not of yourselves, the grace is the gift of God.” Thus the antecedent of οὗτος does not necessarily refer to χάριτί, which is nearest.

 σεσωσμένοι as Antecedent of  τοῦτο

Some commentators point to the noun idea implicit in the masculine participle σεσωσμένοι as one of possible references, to which τοῦτο refers.[16] This line of reasoning is likely justified by the rule of Constructio ad sensum. For example, H. D. M. Spence-Jones notes, “The grammatical structure and the analogy of the passage favour the former view, ‘Your salvation is not of yourselves.’”[17] Then he explains that tautology is purposefully utilized in order to emphasize the importance of grace in one’s salvation.[18] Herbert G. Miller goes even further, arguing that taking either πίστεως or the whole preceding sentence as the antecedent of τοῦτο “would wreck the sentences which follow.” Thus, this view has some merit.[19]

τοῦτο is a Proleptic Demonstrative Pronoun

It is possible that the demonstrative pronoun “may refer to something not yet mentioned,” though demonstrative pronouns more frequently refer to something mentioned previously.[20] In this case, the neuter demonstrative pronoun τοῦτο serves as anticipatory of the neuter noun δῶρον. This line of reasoning is somewhat supported by the fact that there are some instances in history where pronouns point forward rather than backward (Thucydides, The History of the Peloponnesian War. 7.75; Mat 3:4; John 9:13; Eph 4:17; Jude 4).[21] Furthermore, since the closest antecedent nouns are both feminine in gender, this view has some merit. If legitimate, “the pronoun is kataphoric or proleptic, in that its context is revealed by what follows rather than by what precedes.”[22] Based on this grammatical case, Frank Thielman suggests that it is possible that Paul is “already looking ahead to his use of the term δῶρον in the next clause.”[23]

Adverbial Use of καὶ τοῦτο

The next view is to take καὶ τοῦτο adverbially, focusing on the verb σεσωσμένοι without referring back to any noun as antecedent. This line of reasoning is supported by several verses in the NT (e.g., Rom 13:11; 1 Cor 6:6), where the adverbial use of τοῦτο appears.[24] Furthermore, the fact that adverbial use of καὶ τοῦτο is a common classical idiom for “and that too” (e.g., Plato, Respublica, 433b),[25] which serves “to introduce an additional circumstance heightening the force of what has been said,”[26] supports this view as well.  In this case, “there is no need to supply any special words with it.”[27] If granted, καὶ τοῦτο in Eph 2:8 is intensive, and should be interpreted as “and especially” or “and indeed.”[28] Therefore, Eph 2:8 would be translated as follows: “For by grace you have been saved through faith, and [you are saved] especially/indeed not of yourselves, it is the gift of God.” A. T. Robertson is open to the possibility of τοῦτο as being used adverbially in Eph 2:8, although he admits that Eph 2:8 “could be otherwise explained.”[29] On the other hand, James Moulton and Nigel Turner takes καὶ τοῦτο in Eph 2:8 adverbially.[30]

By-Grace-through-Faith-Salvation as Antecedent of τοῦτο

The advocates of this view rely on the common Greek grammatical rule pertaining to a neuter pronoun—namely, a neuter pronoun may refer to the preceding phrase, refer to an entire complex idea, or summarize a thought.[31] Hence, τοῦτο may refer back to the entire phrase τῇ γὰρ χάριτί ἐστε σεσῳσμένοι διὰ πίστεως, indicating that the whole process of salvation is the gift of God. Not only do many Pauline examples of this grammatical construction found outside of Ephesians support this view (e.g., 1 Cor 6:6, 8; Phil 1:22, 28; Col 3:20), but so also does the appearance of this grammatical construction more than three times in Ephesians itself (e.g., 1:15; 3:1; 3:14).[32] Based on this observation, Harold W. Hoehner concludes, “in the present context, τοῦτο refers back to 2:4–8a and more specifically 2:8a, the concept of salvation by grace through faith.”[33] Bryan Chapell also makes the similar conclusion that τοῦτο does not refer to “one preceding noun (faith or grace), but to the whole concept of salvation (including both the faith and the gift of the grace of God upon which salvation is predicated).”[34]

This view is further supported by the clear parallelism between οὐκ ἐξ ὑμῶν in v. 8b and οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων in v. 9a. Since this parallelism is obvious and evident in the Greek text, Heinrich A. W. Meyer notes, “οὐκ ἐξ ὑμῶν and οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων present themselves in a manner alike natural and weighty as elements belonging to one flow of the discourse!”[35] Based on this observation, Andrew T. Lincoln suggests that it is best to understand that v. 8b and v. 9a “are comments about the introductory clause of v. 8a.”[36] Ronald E. Diprose goes even further and decisively asserts that this view “finds confirmation in the second of the parallel statements, ‘not by works, so that no one can boast” (v. 9).”[37]

Evaluating Each View

πίστεως as Antecedent of  τοῦτο

The strength of this view is that it accords with Pauline soteriology—namely, that salvific faith is a gift from God (e.g., 1 Cor 12:3; Phil 1:29; 1 Tim 1:14). However, this view suffers on many grounds. First, this view is violating a normal grammatical rule. Although there are some classical Greek examples available at hand, they are rare and need further evaluation. Furthermore, there are no clear NT examples that can be analyzed.[38] Second, the construction of Ephesians 2:8 does not parallel the normal patterns for gender shifts in the NT, which almost always occur when the pronoun is caught between an antecedent and a predicate nominative of different gender.[39] This is not the case in Eph 2:8. Third, in Pauline passages, τοῦτο frequently refers to the preceding sentence, not to the preceding word (1 Cor 6:8; Eph 1:15; 3:1; 3:14; Phil 1:28).[40] Forth, this view unnecessarily breaks the flow of an obvious parallelism between οὐκ ἐξ ὑμῶν in v. 8b and οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων in v. 9a by taking καὶ τοῦτο οὐκ ἐξ ὑμῶν, θεοῦ τὸ δῶρον as a parenthetical.[41] Samuel H. Turner argues, “the sentiment contained is too important to be thus subordinated.”[42] Finally, contextually speaking, it is hard to take οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων as a reference to faith, especially when v. 9 is taken into a consideration.[43] Because of the nonsensical tautology that this view unnecessarily creates, Frank Thielman correctly points out, “That the antecedent of τοῦτο is not πίστεως in 2:8a … is clear from 2:9a, where Paul denies that τοῦτο is ἐξ ἔργων.”[44] For this reason, A. T. Robertson succinctly notes, “there is no reference to πίστεως in τοῦτο.”[45]

χάριτί as Antecedent of  τοῦτο

This view also has a strength that it accords with the Pauline soteriology—namely, that saving grace is a divine gift (Rom 5:20-21; 1 Cor 15:10). However, this view suffers for many reasons. First, as a matter of normal grammatical rule, this option is doubtful because τοῦτο and χάριτί are different in gender. Second, χάριτί is not even the nearest preceding noun. Third, in Pauline passages, τοῦτο frequently refers to the preceding sentence, not to the preceding word (1 Cor 6:8; Eph 1:15; 3:1; 3:14; Phil 1:28).[46] Fourth, this view unnecessarily breaks the obvious parallelism between οὐκ ἐξ ὑμῶν in v. 8b and οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων in v. 9a. Fifth, contextually speaking, this view makes repetition of the relationship between salvation and grace (Eph 2:5, 7, 8). Sixth, the construction of Ephesians 2:8 does not parallel the normal patterns for gender shifts in the NT. As stated above, gender shifts in the NT almost always occurs when the pronoun is caught between an antecedent and a predicate nominative of different gender.[47]

σεσωσμένοι as Antecedent of  τοῦτο

The strength of this view is that it emphatically depicts God’s saving acts, and this view is well in line with Pauline soteriology (Rom 8:29-30; Eph 1:4-5; 2 Tim 2:20-21; 2 Thess 2:13). This view has some difficulties, however. First, a major obstacle of this view is the normal grammatical rule—namely, τοῦτο is neuter in gender, whereas the participle σεσωσμένοι is in masculine in gender. Second, this view is subjected to an unnecessary repetition of the same idea in three or four ways: “ye are saved by grace, your salvation is not of yourselves, it is God’s gift, not of works.”[48]

τοῦτο is a Proleptic Demonstrative Pronoun

This view has several shortcomings. First, when a demonstrative pronoun is used kataphorically, it generally appears in the beginning of the sentence (e.g., Luke 2:12; 3:20; Phil 1:9; Heb 6:3). This observation makes this view difficult to accept, since τοῦτο in the text under consideration is located in the middle of the verse. Second, this view fails to adequately explain the precise reference of δῶρον which is from God, eventually leaving the readers to wonder what δῶρον is.[49]

Adverbial Use of καὶ τοῦτο

Although this view is supported by several examples in the NT (e.g., Rom 13:11; 1 Cor 6:6, 8; 3 John 5, and Heb 11:12),[50] one shortcoming is that it creates an unnecessary repetition in v. 8: “For by grace you have been saved through faith, and [you are saved] especially/indeed not of yourselves, it is the gift of God.” However, this repetition can be understood as a device for the emphasis.

By-Grace-through-Faith-Salvation as Antecedent of τοῦτο

This view is supported by much evidence. This view not only follows the normal grammatical rule, but also preserves the obvious parallelism between ἐξ ὑμῶν and ἐξ ἔργων. Furthermore, the similar grammatical and syntactical examples are well attested in both classical text and the NT.

Conclusion

This writer has opted for the last view (By-Grace-through-Faith-Salvation as Antecedent of τοῦτο). First and the foremost reason is that this view satisfies the well-established and standard rules of Greek grammar. Although there are several places where the violation of grammar rules occurs in the NT, the exegetes should not be quick to rely on constructio ad sensum when a far better and possibly far simpler explanation is available. Abnormal grammatical construction, which occur rarely, should be reserved as the very last option, when no better explanation can be found. This of course does not mean that it is impossible for τοῦτο to refer back to πίστεως, χάριτί, or even σεσωσμένοι. Because of the flexible nature of neuter pronouns, it is possible that τοῦτο may refer back to the nouns or the participle of a different gender that has an abstract sense. However, on contextual and grammatical grounds, this option is not the simplest and most natural reading of the verse. One should not ignore other elements that help the exegete opt for the simpler and better view: By-Grace-through-Faith-Salvation as Antecedent of τοῦτο. For example, there is the clear parallelism between ἐξ ὑμῶν and ἐξ ἔργων, and this parallelism strongly supports this writer’s choice. Furthermore, the availability of similar grammatical and syntactical examples in both classical texts and the NT also lends weight to this view. Most of all, preferring this view does not need to violate the common grammatical rule. Thus, it is best to see that, although τοῦτο can refer to precedent nouns or a participle of a different gender, it does not do so in the text under consideration.

The purpose of this article was to examine several suggested solutions in order to determine what best explains the evidence, relying on probability rather than possibility. The conclusion is reached ‘By-Grace-through-Faith-Salvation as Antecedent of τοῦτο’ view is the most suitable and the simplest explanation, satisfying the principle of Occam’s razor in slicing away unnecessary hypotheses.

Written by
Sanghwan Lee

Endnotes

[1] Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996), 334.

[2] Abraham Kuyper, The Work of the Holy Spirit (New York; London: Funk & Wagnalls, 1900), 407; Markus Barth, Ephesians: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary on Chapters 1–3, vol. 34, AYB (London: Yale University Press, 2008), 225; William Hendriksen, “Ephesians” in Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon, NTC (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2007) 124-25; Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset, and David Brown, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, vol. 2 (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997), 345; Johann Albrecht Bengel, Gnomon of the New Testament, ed. M. Ernest Bengel and J. C. F. Steudel, trans. James Bryce, vol. 4 (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1860), 75; James S. Candlish, The Epistle of Paul to the Ephesians with Introduction and Notes (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1895), 58; Wm. Graham, Lectures on St. Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians (London: S. W. Partridge and Co., 1870), 126.

[3] Richard A. Young, Intermediate New Testament Greek: A Linguistic and Exegetical Approach (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman, 1994), 78; G. B. Winer, A Treatise on the Grammar of New Testament Greek: Regarded as a Sure Basis for New Testament Exegesis (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1882), 176.

[4] Daniel B. Wallace helpfully explains the meaning of “normal grammatical convention” as follows: “By ‘normal grammatical convention’ we do not mean prescriptive rules that are imposed on the writers by modern researchers but merely the conventions of the language—how it was used by real people. Such grammatical “rules” are thus descriptive of what Koine speakers actually did rather than being prescriptive of what they should have done. When a notable exception to such behavioral patterns is observed, it can be called a violation of a grammatical rule.” Wallace, Daniel B. “Greek Grammar and the Personality of the Holy Spirit.” Edited by Craig A. Evans. BBR, Vol. 13 (2003), 98n. 1.

[5] Kuyper, The Work of the Holy Spirit, 412.

[6] Robert H. Countess, “Thank God For The Genitive!,” JETS 12 (1969): 120.

[7] Cf. Peter Thomas O’Brien, The Letter to the Ephesians, PNTC (Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1999), 175.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Charles Hodge, A Commentary on the Epistle to the Ephesians (New York: Robert Carter and Brothers, 1858), 119.

[10] Ibid., 119.

[11] Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, 334.

[12] Robert G. Hoerber, Stuides in the New Testament (Cleveland, OH: Biblion Publishing, 1991), 2, 6.

[13] Bonnie Bowman Thurston, Reading Colossians, Ephesians, and 2 Thessalonians: A Literary and Theological Commentary, RNTS (Macon, GA: Smith & Helwys Publishing, 2007), 106; Barth, Ephesians, 225; Walter L. Liefeld, Ephesians, vol. 10, IVP NTCS (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1997), Eph 2:8.

[14] Barth, Ephesians, 225; Thurston, Reading Colossians, Ephesians, and 2 Thessalonians, 106

[15] Young, Intermediate New Testament Greek, 78.

[16] H. D. M. Spence-Jones, Ephesians, PC (London; New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1909), 63; Barth, Ephesians, 225; Hodge, A Commentary on the Epistle to the Ephesians, 119; Henry Cowles, The Shorter Epistles (New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1879), 81; R. C. H. Lenski, The Interpretation of St. Paul’s Epistles to the Galatians, to the Ephesians and to the Philippians (Columbus: Lutheran Book Concern, 1937), 423.

[17] Spence-Jones, Ephesians, 63.

[18] Ibid.

[19] Herbert G. Miller, Commentary on St. Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians (London: Skeffington & Son, 1899), 85.

[20] Stanley E. Porter, Idioms of the Greek New Testament (Sheffield: JSOT, 1999), 134; G. Abbott-Smith, A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1922), 329; Max Zerwick and Mary Grosvenor, A Grammatical Analysis of the Greek New Testament (Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1974), xxvi; cf. F. Blass, A. Debrunner, and Robert W. Funk, A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961), 151 (or §290).

[21] Wallace, Greek Grammar beyond the Basics, 318.

[22] Ibid., 459.

[23] Frank Thielman, Ephesians, BECNT (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2010), 143n 2.

[24] John Eadie, A Commentary on the Greek Text of the Epistle of Paul to the Ephesians, ed. W. Young (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1883), 151.

[25] A. T. Robertson, A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research (Logos Bible Software, 2006), 705.

[26] C. E. B. Cranfield, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, ICC (London; New York: T&T Clark International, 2004), 680.

[27] W. Sanday and Arthur C. Headlam, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle of the Romans, 3d ed., ICC (New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1897), 377–78.

[28] Gregory P. Sapaugh, “Is Faith a Gift? A Study of Ephesians 2:8,” JGES, Vol. 7, no. 12 (1994): 38; Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, 335.

[29] Robertson, A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research, 704–5.

[30] James Hope Moulton and Nigel Turner, A Grammar of New Testament Greek: Syntax, vol. 3 (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1963), 45, 335.

[31] Clinton E. Arnold, Ephesians, ZECNT (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2010), 139; Porter, Idioms of the Greek New Testament, 249; Harold W. Hoehner, Ephesians: An Exegetical Commentary (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2002), 343. In his other work, Hoehner makes the same argument: “[T]he neuter touto, as is common, refers to the preceding phrase or clause. (In Eph. 1:15 and 3:1 touto, “this,” refers back to the preceding section.).” Idem, “Ephesians,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 2 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 624; F. F. Bruce, The Epistles to the Colossians, to Philemon, and to the Ephesians (Grand Rapids: Eerdman, 1984), 290; Zane C. Hodges, Absolutely Free! A Biblical Reply to Lordship Salvation (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1989), 219; Sapaugh, “Is Faith a Gift? A Study of Ephesians 2:8,” 39.

[32] George S. Hitchcock, The Epistle to the Ephesians: An Encyclical of St. Paul (London: Burns and Oates, 1913), 160; Hoehner, Ephesians, 343. See also the following works that advocate this view: Lynn H. Cohick, Ephesians, NCCS (Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2010), 65; Bryan Chapell, Ephesians, ed. Richard D. Phillips, Philip Graham Ryken, and Daniel M. Doriani, REC (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 2009) 87n 9.

[33] Hoehner, Ephesians, 343.

[34] Chapell, Ephesians, 87n 9.

[35] Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer, Critical and Exegetical Handbook to the Epistle to the Ephesians and the Epistle to Philemon, ed. William P. Dickson, trans. Maurice J. Evans, CECNT (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1884), 113–14.

[36] Andrew T. Lincoln, Ephesians, WBC, vol. 42 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1990), 112.

[37] Ronald E. Diprose, “Grace: What It Is and How It Has Been Understood by the Church.” EJ, Vol. 10, no. 2 (Winter 2001): 261.

[38] Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, 334n. 51; John F. Hart, “Is Faith a Gift from God According to Ephesians 2:8? A Grammatical Analysis” CTSJ, Vol. 12 (Fall 2006): 46.

[39] Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, 334-5.

[40] Hitchcock, The Epistle to the Ephesians, 160.

[41] Meyer, Critical and Exegetical Handbook to the Epistle to the Ephesians and the Epistle to Philemon, 113–14; Charles J. Ellicott, St. Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians: With a Critical and Grammatical Commentary, and a Revised Translation (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1884), 41.

[42] Samuel H. Turner, The Epistle to the Ephesians, in Greek and English, with an Analysis and Exegetical Commentary (New York: Dana and Company, 1856), 54.

[43] Eadie, A Commentary on the Greek Text of the Epistle of Paul to the Ephesians, 151–52.

[44] Thielman, Ephesians, 143n 2.

[45] Robertson, A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research, 704.

[46] Hitchcock, The Epistle to the Ephesians, 160.

[47] Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, 334-35.

[48] Candlish, The Epistle of Paul to the Ephesians with Introduction and Notes, 58.

[49] Eadie, A Commentary on the Greek Text of the Epistle of Paul to the Ephesians, 151–52.

[50] Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, 335n. 56.

Bibliography

Abbott-Smith, G. A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1922.

Arnold, Clinton E. Ephesians. ZECNT. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2010.

Barth, Markus. Ephesians: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary on Chapters 1–3. Vol. 34, AYB. London: Yale University Press, 2008.

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Bruce, F. F. The Epistles to the Colossians, to Philemon, and to the Ephesians. Grand Rapids: Eerdman, 1984.

Candlish, James S. The Epistle of Paul to the Ephesians with Introduction and Notes. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1895.

Chapell, Bryan. Ephesians. Edited by Richard D. Phillips, Philip Graham Ryken, and Daniel M. Doriani, REC. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 2009.

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Diprose, Ronald E. “Grace: What It Is and How It Has Been Understood by the Church.” The Emmaus Journal. Vol. 10. No. 2 (Winter 2001): 251-267.

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Ellicott, Charles J. St. Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians: With a Critical and Grammatical Commentary, and a Revised Translation. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1884.

Graham, Wm. Lectures on St. Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians. London: S. W. Partridge and Co., 1870.

Hart, John F. “Is Faith a Gift from God According to Ephesians 2:8? A Grammatical Analysis” CTS Journal, Vol. 12 (Fall 2006): 44-57.

Hendriksen, William. “Ephesians.” In Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon. NTC. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2007.

Hitchcock, George S. The Epistle to the Ephesians: An Encyclical of St. Paul. London: Burns and Oates, 1913.

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Hodge, Charles. A Commentary on the Epistle to the Ephesians. New York: Robert Carter and Brothers, 1858.

Hoehner, Harold W. Ephesians: An Exegetical Commentary. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2002.

Hoehner, Harold W. “Ephesians.” In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures. Edited by J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck. Vol. 2. Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985.

Hoerber, Robert G. Stuides in the New Testament. Cleveland, OH: Biblion Publishing, 1991.

Jamieson, Robert, A. R. Fausset, and David Brown. Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible. Vol. 2. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997.

Kuyper, Abraham. The Work of the Holy Spirit. New York; London: Funk & Wagnalls, 1900.

Lenski, R. C. H. The Interpretation of St. Paul’s Epistles to the Galatians, to the Ephesians and to the Philippians. Columbus: Lutheran Book Concern, 1937.

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Meyer, H. A. Wilhelm. Critical and Exegetical Handbook to the Epistle to the Ephesians and the Epistle to Philemon. Edited by William P. Dickson and translated by Maurice J. Evans. CECNT. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1884.

Miller, Herbert G. Commentary on St. Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians. London: Skeffington & Son, 1899.

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Sapaugh, Gregory P. “Is Faith a Gift? A Study of Ephesians 2:8” JGES. Vol. 7, no. 12 (1994): 31-43.

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Wallace, Daniel B. Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996.

Wallace. Daniel B. “Greek Grammar and the Personality of the Holy Spirit.” Edited by Craig A. Evans. BBR. Vol. 13 (2003): 97-125.

Winer, G. B. A Treatise on the Grammar of New Testament Greek: Regarded as a Sure Basis for New Testament Exegesis. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1882.

Young, Richard A. Intermediate New Testament Greek: A Linguistic and Exegetical Approach. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman, 1994.

Zerwick, Max and Mary Grosvenor. A Grammatical Analysis of the Greek New Testament. Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1974.

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